Solar panels are devices that use the sun’s energy to generate electricity. They work by using photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are made of materials that can create electric currents when exposed to light.

Here is a simple explanation of how solar panels work:

  • The sun emits light, which contains photons, or particles of energy. The photons reach the earth and hit the solar panels, which are usually installed on roofs or on the ground.
  • The solar panels have many PV cells, which are usually made of silicon, a semiconductor material. When the photons hit the PV cells, they knock electrons loose from the silicon atoms, creating a flow of electrons.
  • The flow of electrons is called direct current (DC) electricity, which can power devices like lights, fans, or TVs. However, most homes and appliances use alternating current (AC) electricity, which changes direction periodically.
  • To convert DC electricity into AC electricity, solar panels need an inverter, which is a device that changes the voltage and frequency of the electricity to match the grid or the load. The inverter is usually connected to the solar panels by wires and connectors.
  • The AC electricity from the inverter can then be used to power your home or business, or be sent to the grid for a credit or payment. To measure how much electricity you produce and consume, you need a meter, which is a device that records the energy flow.
  • Sometimes, you may produce more electricity than you need, especially during sunny days. You can store this excess electricity in a battery, which is an optional component that can save energy for later use. A battery needs a charge controller, which is a device that regulates its charging and discharging cycles.

This is how solar panels work in a nutshell. But if you have further questions, well, that’s what we are here for!